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南京翻译公司分享四个进阶的英汉翻译规则 

发布时间: 2018-03-06  点击:         打印本页

  南京翻译公司分享四个进阶的英汉翻译规则
  (一)、对等译法
  在翻译过程中,我们一般都可以在译文语言中找到和原文中的某个单词、词组或成语意义上的对等表达。
  因此,对等译法是翻译中最常见、最重要的翻译方法。一般说来,英汉两种语言中单词的对等率较高,而词组、成语、谚语的对等率相对低一些。
  一、单词对等
  book (名词)书
  stand (动词)站
  big (形容词)大的
  and (连接词)和
  当然,这两种语言中存在着差异的"对等"单词也不少,例如:从语义上讲,汉语单词"杯子"并不完全等同于英语单词"cup",而是对等于"cup + mug + glass";从感情色彩上来讲,"知识分子"并不完全对等于"intellectual"。
  二、成语对等
  成语的对等是从三个方面体现出来的,一是比喻意义,一是比喻形式,再一个是感情色彩。
  三者中比喻意义是最重要的。感情色彩的对等同比喻意义的对等几乎同样重要。
  至于比喻形式,能对等则应尽量对等,实在对等不了,就应当机立断,大胆放弃。
  turn a blind eye to
  视而不见
  talk black into white
  颠倒黑白
  walk right into the trap
  自投罗网
  hold one's sides with laughter
  捧腹大笑
  三、谚语对等
  Many hands make light work.
  人多好办事。
  Haste makes waste.
  欲速则不达。
  Where there's a will, there's a way.
  有志者事竟成。
  Birds of a feather flock together.
  物以类聚,人以群分。
  Give a person a dose of his own medicine.
  以其人之道还治其人之身。
  All good things must come to an end.
  天下没有不散的筵席。
  谚语和成语一样,英汉两种语言中的对等大多数也是从比喻意义、比喻形式和比喻色彩三个方面体现出来的。
  同样,比喻意义的对等是最重要的,感情色彩的对等几乎同等重要,在保证这两方面的基础上,再来考虑比喻形式的对等。
  (二)、重译法
  在英译汉中,需要根据原文语境,正确运用词语重复方法,将英文避免重复的词语再现于汉语之中。这种反复使用某些词语的翻译方法就叫重译法。
  在英文中名词第二次出现时,经常会以代词来代替,甚至有时还会出现省略的情况。这种情况汉译时必须进行必要的重复,否则会影响句子意思的表达。
  1.重复作宾语的名词
  (1)Let us first begin to revise our safety and sanitary regulations.
  让我们首先来修改一下我们的安全规则和卫生规则吧。
  (2) We should learn how to analyze and solve problem.
  我们应学会如何分析问题和解决问题。
  2.重复作表语的名词
  (1) Peter is your friend as much as he is mine.
  彼得既是你的朋友,也是我的朋友。
  (2) She became a millionaire-all by herself.
  她成为一个百万富翁--一个白手起家的百万富翁。
  3.重复英语介词短语前所省略的名词
  英语中常重复使用介词短语,共同做某一名词的后置定语,并将第二个、第三个介词短语前的名词省略,译成汉语时则往往要将此名词重译。
  (1)This man often got into argument with his colleagues or with the boss.
  这个人经常和他的同事们争吵,或者同老板争吵。
  (2) Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as of admiration.
  无知是羡慕的根源,也是恐惧的根源。
  (三)、重复手段
  英语句子中往往重复关键性的词,以给读者留下深刻的印象,英译汉时往往可以采用同样的重复手段。
  1.英语原文中有词的重复,译成汉语时可以保持同样的词的重复。
  (1) Work while you work, play while you play.
  该工作时就工作,该玩时就玩。
  (2) Blood must atone for blood.
  血债要用血来还。
  (3) Year after year and century after century the moon goes through its cycle.
  一年又一年,一个世纪又一个世纪,月亮盈亏变化,周而复始。
  此外,英语对仗句的前后两部分中往往有词的重复,译成汉语时对仗句可以保持同样的重复。
  (1) Eye for eye, tooth for tooth.
  以眼还眼,以牙还牙。
  (2) Out of sight, out of mind.
  眼不见,心不烦。
  2.英语原文中有词的重复,译成汉语时有时可以用同义词重复之。
  例如:No pains, no gains.
  不劳无获。
  (四)、语态转换
  被动语态的广泛使用是英语区别于汉语的显著特点之一。在英语中,大凡为了强调受事者,以突出其鲜明位置,无需提及主动者、无意点明主动者、无从说出主动者,为了上下文的衔接与连贯等等,或是出于礼貌措辞圆通等方面的考虑不愿说出动作的执行者是谁的,往往都采用被动语态。
  此外,由于英语被动结构能给读者以间接客观、不带个人感情色彩的印象,因而在科技文献、政论文章和新闻报道等文体中使用尤为频繁。但是汉语采用的主要是语义型句式,大多数被动意义并不一定非得通过被动语句来表达,而可以通过形式上主动、语义上被动的句式予以体现。
  英语和汉语在被动语态使用上存在的这种差异决定了英汉翻译中语态转换的必要性。
  一、译成汉语的被动句
  使用"被、受、遭、让、给、把、得到、加以、得以、为......所、由......来"等词汇。
  Problems should be resolved in good time.
  问题应及时加以解决。
  He was praised by his teacher.
  他得到了老师的表扬。
  二、译成汉语主动句
  (一)保存原文主语(原句主语通常为无生命的名词)
  With the development of social economy,cultural traditions must be kept.
  随着社会的发展,文化传统必须保留
  The meeting is scheduled for April 6th.
  会议定于四月六日举行。
  (二)主宾颠倒(by+行为主体)
  Heat and light can be given off by this chemical change.
  这种化学反应能发出热和光。
  Only a small portion of solar energy is now being used.
  现在我们只能利用一小部分太阳能。
  The Nanjing translation company shares four advanced English Chinese translation rules
  (1), equivalent translation method
  In the translation process, we can generally find the equivalent of a word, phrase or idiom in the text of the target text.
  Therefore, the peer-to-peer translation is the most common and important translation method in translation. Generally speaking, the equivalent rate of words in the two languages of English and Chinese is higher, while the equivalence ratio of phrases, idioms and proverbs is relatively low.
  One, word equivalence
  Book (nouns) book
  Stand (verb) station
  Big (adjective) is big
  And (connectives) and
  Of course, these two kinds of language differences in the "equivalence" words are many, for example: semantically, Chinese word "Cup" is not the same as the English word "Cup", but is "cup + MUG + glass"; from the emotional perspective, "intellectuals" is not completely equal to "intellectual".
  Two. Equivalence of Idioms
  The equivalence of idioms is embodied in three aspects, one is metaphorical meaning, one is metaphorical form, and another is emotional color.
  In the three, the metaphorical meaning is the most important. Emotional equivalence is almost equally important to the equivalent of metaphorical meaning.
  As for the form of metaphor, you should try to peer to peer peer, not really, it should act decisively, boldly give up.
  Turn a blind eye to
  Turn a blind eye to
  Talk black into white
  Confuse right and wrong
  Walk right into the trap
  Fall into a snare
  Hold one's sides with laughter
  Uproarious
  Three, proverb equivalence
  Many hands make light work.
  Many people do things well.
  Haste makes waste.
  The speed of desire is not.
  Where there's a will, there's a way.
  Where there is a will, there is a way.
  Birds of a feather flock together.
  Like attracts like., Birds of a feather flock together.
  Give a person a dose of his own medicine.
  Take the way of the man to treat the person.
  All good things must come to an end.
  There is no banquet in the world.
  Like proverbs and idioms, the equal majority of the two languages in English and Chinese are also reflected from three aspects of figurative, figurative and figurative colors.
  Similarly, the equivalence of metaphorical meaning is the most important. Emotional equivalence is almost equally important. On the basis of guaranteeing these two aspects, we will consider the equivalence of metaphorical form again.
  (二)、重译法
  In the English translation of Hanzhoung, it is necessary to correct the repetition of words and expressions in the Chinese language according to the context of the original text. This translation method repeatedly use certain words called retranslation method.
  In English, when the noun appears second times, it is often replaced by pronouns and sometimes even ellipsis. This kind of situation must be repeated in the Chinese translation, otherwise it will affect the expression of the meaning of the sentence.
  1. a noun that repeats as an object
  (1) Let us first begin to revise our safety and sanitary regulations.
  Let's first change our safety rules and health rules.
  (2) We should learn how to analyze and solve problem.
  We should learn how to analyze and solve problems.
  2. repeat predicative nouns
  (1) Peter is your friend as much as he is mine.
  Peter is both your friend and my friend.
  (2) She became a millionaire-all by herself.
  She became a millionaire - a self-made millionaire.
  3. the nouns omitted before the English prepositional phrase is repeated
  Often repeated use of prepositional phrases in English, to do a post modifier noun, and the second and third prepositional phrases before the noun ellipsis, when translated into Chinese is often the noun retranslation.
  (1) This man often got into argument with his colleagues or with the
  The man often quarreled with his colleagues, or quarreled with the boss.
  (2) Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as of admiration.
  Ignorance is the root of envy, and the root of fear.
  (three), repeating means
  In English sentences, key words are often repeated in order to make a deep impression on the readers. The same repetition can often be used in English translation.
  1. the repetition of words in the original English text, and the same words can be kept when they are translated into Chinese.
  (1) Work while you work, play while you play.
  It's time to work, and it's time to play.
  (2) Blood must atone for blood.
  Blood will have blood.
  (3) Year after year and century after century the moon goes through its
  One year after another, one century and another century, the moon's profit and loss change all over the world.
  In addition, the two part of the sentence in English and antithesis often have word repetition, antithesis sentence translation into Chinese can keep repeating the same.
  (1) Eye for eye, tooth for tooth.
  An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.
  (2) Out of sight, out of mind.
  No eye, no heart.
  2. the repetition of words in the original English text can be repeated in synonyms when translated into Chinese.
  For example, No pains, no gains.
  No pain, no gain。
  (four), voice conversion
  The widespread use of passive voice is one of the distinct features of English that distinguishes it from Chinese. In English, all in order to emphasize the patient, to highlight its distinctive position
  An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.
  (1) Eye for eye, tooth for tooth.
  (2) Out of sight, out of mind.
  No eye, no heart.
  2. the repetition of words in the original English text can be repeated in synonyms when translated into Chinese.
  For example, No pains, no gains.
  No pain, no gain。
  (four), voice conversion
  The widespread use of passive voice is one of the distinct features of English that distinguishes it from Chinese. In English, all in order to emphasize the patient, to highlight its distinctive position, without mention of active, initiative, it is impossible to say no to the initiative, the cohesion and coherence and so on, or who is polite wording tact and other considerations to tell the action executor, is often used in the passive voice.
  In addition, English passive structure can give readers an indirect and objective impression, so it is especially frequently used in the literature of science and technology, political articles and news reports. However, the main form of Chinese is the semantic sentence pattern. Most of the passive meanings do not have to be expressed by passive sentences, but can be reflected through active, semantically passive sentences.
  The difference between English and Chinese in the use of passive voice determines the necessity of the translation of the language in English and Chinese translation.
  A passive sentence translated into Chinese
  Use of words such as "be, receive, suffer, give, give, give, get, to, to, to, for, to...".
  Problems should be resolved in good time.
  The problem should be solved in time.
  He was praised by his teacher.
  He was praised by the teacher.
  Two, translated into Chinese active sentence
  (1) preserve the subject of the original (the original sentence is usually a inanimate noun)
  With the development of social economy, cultural traditions must be kept.
  With the development of society, cultural traditions must be preserved
  The meeting is scheduled for April 6th.
  The meeting is scheduled to be held in April 6th.
  (two) the guest reversed (by+ behavior)
  Heat and light can be given off by this chemical change.
  This chemical reaction gives out heat and light.
  Only a small portion of solar energy is now being used.
  Now we can only use a small portion of the solar energy.